COVID-19 vaccine was compared between Pfizer and Moderna after being tested in human phase 3.

Advances in vaccine production against COVID-19 The reality is closer to two producers, BioNTech, a German biotechnology company that joins his company, and US pharmaceutical company Pfizer. That came out to announce the success of the experiment At the same time as Moderna, an American pharmaceutical company Both of these vaccines were tested for phase III in humans, and their results were nearly 100 percent protective.

The BNT126b2 vaccine by Pfizer and Biontec was 95 percent effective from an analysis of 170 subjects.

Of all 43,000 participants in the trial, storage and transport will require a temperature of -70 degrees Celsius or if stored in a normal refrigerator for 5-15 days, and 50 million doses will be prepared this year. And prepare to produce 1,300 million doses in the next year The price is at a price of 19.5 US dollars or about 592 baht.

The mRNA-1273 vaccine by Moderna had a 94.5 percent result from a sample of 95 people.

Of the total 30,000 trial participants, it was kept at -20 ° C for 6 months or kept in the refrigerator for 30 days, with the goal of preparing to produce 20 million doses of the vaccine soon and next year to produce 1,000 vaccines. Million dosages, the price per dose is 32-37 US dollars or about 972 – 1124 baht.

What is the Covid Pfizer vaccine?

At the end of November 2020, we started seeing international news that the vaccination against COVID-19 started. To the people Giving more and more people hope to stop the epidemic.

One of the vaccines that have been approved is the Pfizer vaccine, which in this article will be introduced.

What is the Covid Pfizer vaccine?
Covid-Pfizer vaccine (Pfizer-covid vaccine), officially BNT162b2, is a vaccine against COVID-19. Invented by Pfizer in collaboration with the German company BioNTech.

A study of Pfizer vaccine with 43,000 volunteers found that Pfizer vaccine was 95% effective, 50% higher than what the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set in emergency approval.

How is the Covid Pfizer vaccine injected?
Covid-Pfizer vaccine is injected in a total of 2 doses, with the second dose 21 days away from the first dose.

Who is the Covid Pfizer vaccine suitable for?
Pfizer and Biotech recommend it to those who have the following conditions. May be suitable for Pfizer vaccine

People aged 16 years and over
People over the age of 65, but studies have shown that the body produces very little immunity, however, according to the results of the studies, there is still a possibility that these people will benefit from this vaccine.
Pfizer currently has started trials of the vaccine in children aged 12 years and plans to study them in children under that age. Therefore have to wait for further information

View information on the COVID MODERNA vaccine (Moderna)

View more topics Interesting about COVID-19

Who is the Covid Pfizer vaccine suitable for?
Although there is not much information on the COVID vaccine.

People with allergies Or severe or mild allergy to mRNA ingredients in the COVID-19 vaccine. This vaccine should not be received.
People with allergies to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate are substances used in some cosmetics and drugs.
Is the Covid Pfizer vaccine safe?
Although the covidpfizer vaccine has a shorter time to be produced than other vaccines, But Pfizer itself has not reported any serious concerns.

Because before Pfizer did that big test A small group of clinical testing was conducted in May to verify the safety of the vaccine.

However, both the US Food and Drug Administration. And the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continue to monitor for side effects of vaccines.

Side effects of the covidpfizer vaccine
It is common for many vaccines to have side effects. So does the Covid Pfizer vaccine:

Fever with chills
Headache
Muscle pain
tired
Pain and swelling at the injection site
These side effects may begin 1-2 days after vaccination. In the experimental group, side effects occurred after the second dose and should disappear within a few days.

If you haven’t been vaccinated Still considered at risk of contracting COVID-19 Therefore, everyone must still wear face masks, wash their hands and avoid crowded communities.

Suspected of COVID-19 infection They may undergo an RT-PCR test or a nasal swab to collect samples for infection. You can see the coronavirus packages at The largest health, dental and beauty center in Thailand.

What 6 types of “COVID-19” vaccines are there before getting injected in 2021?

COVID-19 vaccine Currently, about 60 vaccines have been studied in animal studies. The study of the COVID-19 vaccine was divided into three stages, and only three to four were confirmed and administered to humans. But did you know that the COVID-19 vaccine How are each brand different? Today, Thairath Online introduced the type of COVID-19 vaccine. To understand the basics

How many types of COVID-19 vaccine are there?

Around the world, there are six types of technology used to produce the COVID-19 vaccine:

Viral-Vector Vaccine is a vaccine that uses a weakened virus. Does not cause disease Cut into the genetic code To stimulate the body to build immunity, AstraZeneca’s Oxford ChAdOx1 stimulates more than 200 titers.

mRNA Vaccine is the use of some viral code to inject to stimulate the body to build immunity, including Pfizer-Biontech, Moderna, can stimulate the immune system by more than 300 titers.

Protein-nanoparticle Vaccine is a vaccine that uses one part of the virus protein along with the other. Stimulant injections for the body to build immunity, including Novavax, stimulates more than 3,000 titers.

DNA Vaccine is a vaccine that designs DNA fragments by inserting antigen-producing genes. And using a muscle or skin injection method to express the desired protein antigen

Inactivated Vaccine is a vaccine that cannot cause disease by chemicals or UV light.

VLP (Virus Like Particle) is a virus-like particle vaccine.

Which type of “COVID-19” vaccine was most used?
Overall, the global selection of the COVID-19 vaccine was found that the mRNA vaccine was administered the most to the population, followed by Inactivated Vaccine, while the other types were still under development. And if effective immunization is achieved Has a chance to be used in the future

As of January 2021, around the world, 8.2 billion doses of vaccines have been reserved. Canada and the UK are three times the number of vaccine-booked countries in the country, and the United States has 1.7 times the bookings of the population.

View of the vaccine manufacturer from the Serum Institute in India. The world’s top 2 billion vaccine manufacturers estimate that the earliest time for the world to receive adequate COVID-19 vaccine will be 2024.

Considering the overview of the countries that have been vaccinated against COVID-19. To the total population of approximately 15 million people, the mRNA type of COVID-19 vaccine was injected, the most of about 8 million, and the number of confirmed vaccine intolerance is 8, which is 1 in a million and is safely treated.

In Thailand itself Aim to vaccinate more than half of Thais Representing 33 million people

A summary of the COVID-19 vaccines that have been booked or used are AstraZeneca, Novavax, Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech. I know that these vaccines What type of vaccine is it? Still can’t tell which one is the best for Thai people. However, the vaccines that are selected for the individual citizens of each country must be certified by the safety agency. Before injections to the public

Thailand has a team of researchers who develop the COVID-19 vaccine. With many technologies And if successfully passed the certification Can be produced and used by Thai people themselves It is an alternative in conjunction with overseas ordering channels.

Cystitis

This is an inflammation of the bladder that is often caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI) that can cause abnormalities. Most of which occur in women than men. Because a woman’s urethra is short And close to the anus, which is a very infectious source Such germs are therefore more likely to enter through the urethra than men.

Causes of cystitis

The most common primary cause is bacterial infection of the urinary tract. Especially the bacteria Escherichia coli or E. coli (Escherichia coli: E. coli), Klebsiella, Zudomonas (Pseudomonas), Enterobacteria ( Enterobacter), which these bacteria are abundant. In the area around the anus Can enter the body in many ways, such as sexual intercourse. Incorrect cleaning after defecation Using an organic cotton or tampon Or urinary catheterization may also be caused by causes other than bacteria But often occurs very rarely, such as chronic cystitis, drug use, and intimate product use Irradiation of the pelvic muscles Or as a complication from other diseases

Risk factors for cystitis

Prolonged urination Causing pathogens in the urine to grow better
Maintaining poor genital hygiene Especially women If cleaning is not done properly, such as wiping from the back to the front It will have a chance of infection from the vagina and anus.
Douching with antibiotics Causing the good bacteria that protect against germs to be eliminated Therefore becoming more easily infected
Sexually transmitted infection
Hormonal changes in postmenopausal women When female hormones are reduced. Moisturizes the vaginal lining and urethra, which helps prevent infection as well.
Diabetics If the disease is not controlled well, it is likely to be infected easily because the body has low immunity.
Patients must take immunosuppressants. 8. Prolonged urinary catheterization

Symptoms of cystitis

There is a symptom of persistent urination (urinating little by little But often) symptoms like urination
Pain in the lower abdomen or pubis, a burning sensation while urinating, especially when urinating
Cloudy urine, sometimes with an unusual odor. In very severe cases, urine may have blood in the urine. Often without fever (except if you Patients develop high fever, chills, cloudy urine. And lumbago) in young children may have bedwetting symptoms and may have fever, anorexia. Vomiting with

Taking care of yourself when you have cystitis

Drink plenty of clean water, about 6-8 glasses per day (when there are no diseases that require limited water intake, such as heart failure), where drinking water will help flush out germs and reduce burning pain. Time to urinate
Always urinate every time you feel pain. Not holding urine
Avoid nutrients that irritate the bladder, such as coffee, alcohol, soft drinks, and sugary juices.
Always try to move your body Should not sit still for a long time.
Cleaning the genital area or after a bowel movement (in women) must always be front to back. This is to prevent contaminated pathogens from entering the urethra and entering the bladder.
In women, contraception should not be used with a spermicide or the use of a cervical cap. This is because it causes irritation and injury to the urinary and vulvar tissues. Resulting in an easier infection
Do not use sprays or deodorants in the genital area, as they can cause irritation to the urinary and vulvar tissues. This increases the chance of injury and tissue infection.
Should take a shower from the shower Avoid bathing in the tub. Because it may increase the chance of infection more easily
Basic hygiene (national hygiene) should be maintained to maintain good physical health. And reduce the chance of serious infections
Patients should not buy the drug for themselves. Because it may cause drugs that do not match the type of disease Or the size and duration of the drug is not correct. Therefore may result in the disease not curing And can become chronic cystitis from drug-resistant infection

Cystitis

This is an inflammation of the bladder that is often caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI) that can cause abnormalities. Most of which occur in women than men. Because a woman’s urethra is short And close to the anus, which is a very infectious source Such germs are therefore more likely to enter through the urethra than men.

Causes of cystitis

The most common primary cause is bacterial infection of the urinary tract. Especially the bacteria Escherichia coli or E. coli (Escherichia coli: E. coli), Klebsiella, Zudomonas (Pseudomonas), Enterobacteria ( Enterobacter), which these bacteria are abundant. In the area around the anus Can enter the body in many ways, such as sexual intercourse. Incorrect cleaning after defecation Using an organic cotton or tampon Or urinary catheterization may also be caused by causes other than bacteria But often occurs very rarely, such as chronic cystitis, drug use, and intimate product use Irradiation of the pelvic muscles Or as a complication from other diseases

Risk factors for cystitis

Prolonged urination Causing pathogens in the urine to grow better
Maintaining poor genital hygiene Especially women If cleaning is not done properly, such as wiping from the back to the front It will have a chance of infection from the vagina and anus.
Douching with antibiotics Causing the good bacteria that protect against germs to be eliminated Therefore becoming more easily infected
Sexually transmitted infection
Hormonal changes in postmenopausal women When female hormones are reduced. Moisturizes the vaginal lining and urethra, which helps prevent infection as well.
Diabetics If the disease is not controlled well, it is likely to be infected easily because the body has low immunity.
Patients must take immunosuppressants. 8. Prolonged urinary catheterization

Symptoms of cystitis

There is a symptom of persistent urination (urinating little by little But often) symptoms like urination
Pain in the lower abdomen or pubis, a burning sensation while urinating, especially when urinating
Cloudy urine, sometimes with an unusual odor. In very severe cases, urine may have blood in the urine. Often without fever (except if you Patients develop high fever, chills, cloudy urine. And lumbago) in young children may have bedwetting symptoms and may have fever, anorexia. Vomiting with

Taking care of yourself when you have cystitis

Drink plenty of clean water, about 6-8 glasses per day (when there are no diseases that require limited water intake, such as heart failure), where drinking water will help flush out germs and reduce burning pain. Time to urinate
Always urinate every time you feel pain. Not holding urine
Avoid nutrients that irritate the bladder, such as coffee, alcohol, soft drinks, and sugary juices.
Always try to move your body Should not sit still for a long time.
Cleaning the genital area or after a bowel movement (in women) must always be front to back. This is to prevent contaminated pathogens from entering the urethra and entering the bladder.
In women, contraception should not be used with a spermicide or the use of a cervical cap. This is because it causes irritation and injury to the urinary and vulvar tissues. Resulting in an easier infection
Do not use sprays or deodorants in the genital area, as they can cause irritation to the urinary and vulvar tissues. This increases the chance of injury and tissue infection.
Should take a shower from the shower Avoid bathing in the tub. Because it may increase the chance of infection more easily
Basic hygiene (national hygiene) should be maintained to maintain good physical health. And reduce the chance of serious infections
Patients should not buy the drug for themselves. Because it may cause drugs that do not match the type of disease Or the size and duration of the drug is not correct. Therefore may result in the disease not curing And can become chronic cystitis from drug-resistant infection

Pain relievers to reduce fever

Aspirin (Aspirin) size 300 mg. Price 25-50 satang per tablet.
Properties: used to cure fever (hot body), headache, eye pain, earache, toothache, back pain, joint pain, muscle pain, wound pain, menstrual pain, aches.
How to use: Eat immediately after meals. If it takes on an empty stomach Before taking the medicine, drink milk first. Or after taking medicine, drink plenty of water. Eat only when symptoms appear and can repeat every 4-6 hours if they have not improved.
Size of use: Adults consume 1-2 tablets per time. Children aged 5-10 years eat 1 tablet per time. 3-5 years eat half a tablet each time. 1-3 years eat 1/4 tablet each time (one slice).
Caution: Do not use in people with or suspected gastritis, asthma, dengue fever, blood disease (with bleeding that is difficult to stop), people allergic to this drug, pregnant women, children under 1. Years, people under the age of 18 who have had the flu, chickenpox Or viral infections Such persons should use paracetamol instead. If there is an allergic reaction With a rash or hives The drug should be stopped immediately.

Paracetamol (Paracetamol) tablet size 500 mg. Price 25-50 satang per tablet.
Properties: used to treat various symptoms The same is true for aspirin. Use instead of aspirin in cases of gastritis. Or in people allergic to aspirin, or in people with suspected dengue fever, or in people who are prohibited from taking aspirin for any other reason.
Directions for use: Take when symptoms occur and repeat every 4-6 hours if they have not improved.
Size of use: Adults take 1-2 tablets at a time. Children aged 7-12 years eat half -1 tablet each time. 4-7 years eat half a tablet each time. Children under 4 years of age should use a liquid antipyretic for children. (Syrup-type paracetamol).
Warning: Do not use in people with liver disease. Or when there is a jaundice or yellow eyes. Do not eat for more than 10 days.

Syrup-type antipyretic for children (Paracetamol syrup) size 120 mg per teaspoon, 60 ml bottle, price 15-30 baht per bottle.
Properties: used to treat various symptoms The same is true for aspirin.
Directions for use: Eat when symptoms occur and repeat every 4-6 hours if they have not improved.
Size of use: Children aged 4-7 years eat 1-2 teaspoons each time. 1-4 years eat half -1 teaspoon each time. Children under 1 year eat half a teaspoon at a time.
Warning: the same is true for paracetamol tablets.